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I wonder if anybody knows if the bow was specifically associated with any Buddhist sects? Such as the naginata was associated with the Sohei. And yes, I am aware that the Sohei also used the bow on occasion.

What are the mythological/religious associations of the bow (in Japan, of course)?
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I'm uncertain if the use of the bow is more prolific in any one school of Buddhism. The practice of kyudo, as with iaido, is both common and encouraged amongst Zen adherents, and I've heard kendo and judo both referred to as "moving zen". The various Ways of budo are inexoribly linked with Zen Buddhism.

The bow in Japan is probably more closely associated, religiously, with Shinto. Hachiman, the Shinto god of War was also called the God of the Bow. Likewise, Emperor Jimmu, who I think has been elevated to a certain limited divinity, is most often depicted as an archer. Much of the ceremony and formal dress in kyudo is adopted from older Shinto traditions.